Organic Crop Production

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  • An holistic production management system aimed to promote and improve the wellbeing of soils, ecosystems and individuals.
  • It gives emphasis to the utilization of locally adapted management practices and farm inputs.

Aims of Organic Crop Production

  • Enhancing biological diversity
  • Increasing soil biological activity
  • Maintaining long-term fertility
  • Management of fleas
  • Recycling of plant transports
  • Minimizing a variety of pollution from agricultural practices

Strategies for Crop Production

  • Organic Soil Management. Soil management will promote nutrient cycling while mitigating soil and nutrient losses. The fertility and biological activity of the soil Ought to Be maintained or increased during the following:

O Cultivation of beans or green manures in appropriate crop rotation program

O Recycling of nutrients through composting

o   Incorporation of organic materials

O Protection of soil from erosion

  • Promotion of genetic diversity and ensuring that the seeds utilized aren’t contaminated.

How Do We Choose the Crops to Plant?

  • For a beginner, it’s very good to begin with vegetables you like to eat and at the same time are easy to grow.
  • Nothing is much more rewarding than eating the production of your very own sweat.
  • And more specifically so, having the peace of mind you and your family are eating food that is safe.

Families of Vegetables

  • Leafy Vegetables. These are plants mainly used because of their leaves whether eaten cooked or raw. It is generally developed for salad and it requires full sunlight. It may also be increased in container/pots also it has shallow roots. It has minimal bugs without the demand for trellis. It is ideal for backyard gardening. Here are some examples of leafy veggies:

o   Lettuce

o   Kale

o   Mustard

o   Spinach

o   Arugula

o   Pechay

  • Cucurbits. The pineapple and pineapple family belongs to this family. They are vine plants also it requires trellis. It develops from 30 to 90 times and contains it has deep roots. It requires full sunlight and could be increased in bigger containers. Here are some examples of cucurbits:

o   Cucumbers

o   Squash

o   Watermelon

o   Melons

o   Gourds

  • Solanaceous. It includes a lot of common garden vegetables although the portion of the plant generally consumed is the fruit (the potato is an exception — the underground tuber is consumed.) It is improved in warmer or summer regions. It has profound roots but may be increased in bigger containers. It requires trellis. Here are a few example of solanaceous:

o   Tomato

o   Pepper

o   Eggplant

o   Potato

  • Root Crops. These are plants that make edible and expand stem or roots. It has profound roots and requires sandy-loam soil. Minimum of 12 inch-deep plots but may be increased in bigger containers. Full sunlight is required and it is direct seeding. Here are several example of root plants:

o   Carrot

o   Radish

o   Turnip

o   Beet

o   Sweet Potato

  • Legumes. These are the bean and pea family. These plants require trellis and quite minimal organic input is required. It could be intercropped with other bigger plants. It is green mulch.
  • Crucifers. These are veggies belonging to the brassica family like cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli.
  • Herbs. These are plants with savory or aromatic properties which are used for flavoring food, in medicine, or as scents. It could be planted in pots and will withstand partly shaded places. Here are a few of the herbaceous plants:

o   Parsley

o   Basil

o   Rosemary

o   Mint

o   Thyme

o   Tarragon

o   Chives

Crop Production Processes

Seedling

Characteristics of a Fantastic seedling medium

  • Porous sufficient to provide Decent air circulation and root growth
  • Rich in plant nutrients
  • Pathogen-free
  • Has great water holding capacity
  • Have a great deal of microbial activity to keep plants healthy, strong and higher resistance from insects and diseases.

Seedling medium

  • Composed of vermicast/vermicompost and carbonized rice hull mix completely.
  • Ratio is 1:1

Seed Sowing

  • Sowing seeds in seedling trays or seedling cups is suggested to protect seeds from predators like rodents or birds.
  • Seedlings in cups and trays are also shielded from pressure during transplanting.

Seed Sowing Procedures

  • Fill the tray with seedling medium
  • Punch holes using a empty tray
  • Sow seeds, a per hole
  • Cover the holes by leveling the medium
  • Water the seeds with diluted EMAS
  • Apply markings

Land Preparation

A set of processes done to create the soil conducive to planting.

  • Weeding and debris clearing
  • Cultivating
  • Pulverizing
  • Plot forming
  • Organic matter application
  • Mulching

Plot Dimension

  • Width: 1 meter
  • Length: 10 meters
  • Distance between plots: 30 cm

Organic Matter Application

Surface Application. Apply organic matter at a speed of 100 g per square meter.

Beneath the soil application. Make a canal at the middle of the plot and fill with organic thing. Make certain organic matter are sprinkled evenly. Sprinkle EMAS and cover with soil.

Mulching. The procedure for covering the topsoil with plant material like leaves, grass, twigs, harvest residues or straw. Mulching helps develop a soil construction with lots of smaller and bigger pores through which rainwater could easily infiltrate into the soil, thus reducing surface runoff. As the mulch material decomposes, it increases the material of organic matter in the soil. Soil organic matter will help produce a fantastic soil with steady crumb construction.

Application of compost.

  • If the layer of compost is not overly thick, seeds or seedlings can be directly sown or planted in between the mulching material.
  • On vegetable plots, it is ideal to apply mulch just after the young plants have come to be somewhat hardier, since they could possibly be damaged by the goods of decomposition from new mulch material.
  • If mulch is applied prior to sowing or planting, the mulch layer shouldn’t be too thick in order to permit seedlings to permeate it and wait for 2 (two ) weeks prior to transplanting.
  • Mulch may also be applied in established plants, best directly after digging the soil. It could be applied between the rows, directly around single plants or equally dispersed around the field.
  • The procedure for planting the seedlings from the toddlers to the field.
  • Rule of Thumb: Seedlings must have 2-3 true leaves before transplanting
  • Drench with EMAS after transplanting watering just the origin program.

Maintenance

  • Spray a cocktail of concoctions twice per week
  • Side apparel bokashi after every 2 weeks after transplanting in a speed of 100 g per square meter.
  • Maintain secure distance of 5-6 inches between bokashi and the stem of crops.

Pest Management

Organic pest control involves the adaptation of scientifically established and ecologically sound strategies that follow the criteria set for organic agriculture.

Build Soil Health

  • Good plant nutrition is the crucial to prevention of plant diseases
  • Improving soil health enables crops to grow well and create tolerance or resistance to pathogens and pests.

Agro biodiversity

  • Crop Rotation. This involves planting different harvest type in arrangement on the same piece of property. The system breaks the life cycle of insects.
  • Mixed Cropping. This involves planting several different crop types in 1 unit place. The idea is 1 harvest can help other harvest repel their particular pests.
  • Trap cropping. Takes benefit of the truth that certain plants are more favored by other insects over another.

Sanitation

  • Refers to elimination of breeding sites, food resources and alternative host crops in which pests may thrive.
  • Remove ruined fruits, leaves and shoots immediately and make sure not to throw damaged plant components within the farm in order to not infect other crops.
  • It also includes handpicking the insect pests, larva and egg mass generally found in the underside of the leaves.

Physical Barriers

  • Net bagging
  • Net tubing

Other Methods

  • Yellow sticky traps
  • Mulching

From: ATIng Gulayan Seminar, Agricultural Training Institute, Philippines

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